A way of synthesizing a graphene-based material includes exposing graphene-encapsulated metallic nanoparticles, each nanoparticle containing a graphene casing surrounding a metal center, to some cracking and welding gas composition under conditions sufficient to crack graphene shells and also to rebuild cracked graphene shells to shape the graphene-based material.


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Mechanical cleaving (exfoliation), chemical exfoliation, chemical synthesis, and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis are commonly used techniques for graphene synthesis. Presently, the most successful route to synthesizing grapheneis chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Thermal CVD is usually employed to graphene formation within transition metals, including copper, nickel, iridium, and ruthenium. Thermal CVD techniques may also be utilized for graphene synthesis over dielectrics, andvarious other oxides. The CVD graphene process is restricted to using gaseous raw materials, which makes it difficult to use the technology to a larger assortment of potential carbon precursors, especially good carbon resources.

The challenges of sustainable growth have driven individuals to find facile, environmental friendly techniques to create carbon-based nanomaterials. Biomass presents an abundant and low-cost source of carbon. However, there were limitedstudies on the use of wood or agricultural biomass as the carbon source for the creation of graphene-based materials.

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